The stitch is skipped and not knitted, leaving a bar of yarn behind it.
Two-colour slip stitch which forms a maze or mosaic pattern on the right side.
The stitch has a loop of yarn placed in the hook, but the stitch is not knitted. To replicated this by hand you'd bring the yarn forward, slip a st, then knit a stitch, creating an extra stitch
Fair-isle or knit-in
Two-colour work, where the colour not is use is slipped behind the knitted stitches, resulting in "floats" of yarn on the wrong side of the work.
Lace of holes made by transferring single stitches in one direction or another
Lace where stitches are transferred over several passes - almost a cable effect, but with lace holes
Punch lace Lace made by running an invisible thread along with the main yarn. In certain areas, only the invisible yarn is knitted.
Lace created with a tuck card, where certain needles are out of work, and the tucks fall either side.
A contrasting yarn is woven into the wrong side of the knitting - can be done to a pattern
Knitting made with a garter carriage, that may have both knit and purl in one row
If you've got any more definitions to add, please comment and I'll update. I'm only really a beginner at this so don't claim to have them all down!